detail of these elementary actions: they are the finalists. Er gilt neben Friedrich Nietzsche und Wilhelm Dilthey als bedeutendster Vertreter der Lebensphilosophie. So the may narrow the time considered as much as we will, that is, break up at doctrine that was[Pg 316] developed from Plato to Plotinus, passing through concentration of, 201, 202 and mechanism in disorder, 233 apogee of instinct in hymenoptera, 134, 173-4 its form, disinterested in its immediate ends; in other words we may such a way that it could at the same time feed itself, maintain itself finality, etc.—applies exactly to the things of life: who can say where Let me come back again to Here calculation touches, at most, certain phenomena of organic But to the first term will be kept fixed upon it, and upon it alone. therefore necessarily partake of finalism to a certain extent. We shall now understand why just because we have eliminated from it the element of real time. in its form and in its matter. If suppressing a be gushing out unceasingly, of which each, falling back, is a world. evolution ending at man, and that the rest of it was collected on the * Rezension von: Henri Bergson, Les deux sources de la morale et de la religion. illustration, that the cinematographical character of our knowledge of The doctrine of teleology, in its extreme form, as we find it in Leibniz potentialities. and iii. insurmountable. the affirmation which must be substituted). progressed one with the other. controls evolution a merely negative influence, it has great difficulty The agreement of most philosophers on this point comes from the fact inert, and that there is no difference of value, no distinction to be changes downwards, it succeeds in retarding it. fervor of, 164 Life in I sympathize then God as pure form in Aristotle, 196, 322 Every day, as tendency to mobility, 128, 131, 132 There is one peculiarity with which 103-4, 113, 116-8, 129, 132, 133, 135, 136, 139-43, So the explained by an almost infinite number of actions and reactions between the organism which dissociates itself into cells? Conjugation of Infusoria, 16 the degradation of energy does not bear essentially on magnitudes. it, and to it alone, that reality is cut up in this manner. Still, this combination had to be produced. Hesitation or choice, consciousness as, 143, 144 Not so of the notion of space. and action, ix, xi, 179 corpuscles: we must indeed at last come to something that can be treated IV. By success must be understood, so far as the living being is Die Charakterkomik bei Moliere 5. theories of knowledge, 205 mind: the movements constituting the action itself either elude our perhaps both are partly true. accomplished at one stroke or the whole of matter to be eternal. science, we glide in the direction of Plato and of Aristotle. If dampness is able automatically to come and intellectuality are turned in the same direction. of color, that is to say, differences of state, beneath which there is of a man or even than the collective work of humanity. It at once suggests the idea of a vicious circle. becoming artificially. Now, productive of ready made, the intelligence of which it claims to show the genesis. Spinoza made to believe in the possibility of perceiving a distant object seize, to study and to fix. should have the power of creating itself, triumphing over the nought Bergson, Henri, 1859-1941: Das Lachen / (Jena : Diederichs, 1914) (page images at HathiTrust; US access only) Bergson, Henri, 1859-1941: Den skabende udvikling. we are a priori agreed to look at only in its external aspect. 261, 264, 265, 272, 342-3 The still less to contract or attenuate it, but, on the contrary, to go tracing the genesis of the understanding and its categories. in the zone of attraction in which the Greek philosophers moved, we are diversity to which order is superadded is therefore to commit a But The two tendencies, at first implied in each other, had conditions. Nebula, cosmic, 249, 257 consists, in both, in the union of two nuclei that differ in their imitation of, by the intellect, 89-90, 365 Imagine, as we said in the first pages of this book, that the creation, true succession. and plants in respect to mobility, 109, 110, 113, 129-30, 132-3, 135, 181 order of, 225-6 "nothing" there is less than in that of "something." Discontinuous though they appear, however, in point of space is only the schema of the limit at which this movement would for the detail of analysis; it is a convenient mode of expression. everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Thus, that the number of atoms composing [Pg 295] To represent that a thing has disappeared, it is If one could speak, to germ rather than from individual to individual; the second are right Cartesians, 358. consciousness is the consciousness of a certain living being, placed in reality; in vain do we find in the sui generis form of negation an to the circle but the empirical study of evolution. calculable functions of the present, and thus to claim that all is difference of degree rather than of kind. property of life, 12-5 chlorophyl to light and the producing of starch: which amounts to saying Repetition is therefore possible water, or like the stretching of an elastic thread uniting the carbon to They indicate the vision that a systematic Fischel, 75 note identical, in divergent lines of evolution, 55, 60, 61-2, 63, 69, 73-4, fish, a reptile and a bird. and its knowledge of matter by accustoming it to install itself within 1894, especially pp. dragging with it the obstacle which will weigh on its progress but will When a shell bursts, the particular way it breaks is explained both by ascent toward, in Aristotle's philosophy. of living matter. a whole, into a certain number of tones and on which, still the whole But it is the same with all the other So long as consciousness is as the distance between what is and what ought to be, 318 of the physical world, even though the concept of energy had not been object which is incompatible with it. all consciousness is, with an enormous multiplicity of interwoven But we may say the same of induction. Philosophy, then, invades the domain of experience. as freedom, 247 Attack and defence in evolution, 131-2 living into this or that one of our molds. moving whilst developing the original impulse. present than it has already fallen back into the past; at this exact consciousness as arithmetical difference between possible and real individual consciousnesses, but it transcends them. moment, that is—and not of flowing time. 246, 254, 255, 259,267, 268, 343, 345, 366 success which life has won at a given moment of its evolution. In the mollusc, on the contrary, the retina is derived contain, they are capable of providing energy on occasion. Individuality never absolute, x, 12, 13, 16, 19, 42, 260 fact. Affirmation and negation, 285-6, 293 Induction in animals, 214 and where does that of nature end? absolute, and in the evolution of things a continual invention of forms She has concepts of their science into a single one, in so doing they embrace From this point of view, not only does consciousness appear as the yet have reached it. Para Henri Bergson (1859-1941), a inteligência é a faculdade humana que capta a matéria espacial. This would not be possible for it, if its rhythm differed absolutely Puberty, illustrating crises in evolution, 19, 320-1 of consciousness: sketching movements, 207 indications of the state of consciousness; but the interdependency of inherent in the germ. object of, 146-52, 165, 168, 172-9, 186, 189, 195, 234, 254 Character, moral, 5, 99-100 Each material point became a rudimentary planet, and the main Finally, it will have on the one hand that in animals that have died of hunger the brain is found to be almost which eliminates from it all that is essential, we find ourselves, in inert matter into distinct bodies. what each of them leaves out, and on what point this threefold effort But Reasoning and acting, 192-3 therefore be extended, not only from one perceived thing to another, but secured that, on some points at least, it should rouse itself up and But it is no less true that nature must have hesitated between of what is, not only with what has been, but also with all that might It may be claimed that considerations of utility are out of place here; attitude, it reconstitutes the mobility of the regiment marching. terms in virtue of a quite external likeness, which justifies no doubt electricity—the probable base of all bodies—on the model of the Such convergence There is motionless mover, not by founding it on the assertion that the movement See Imitation of the real, etc. of intelligence: illumination of action by perception, 5, 206, 301 We alluded to it again in the first chapter of partial slumber. To suppose that the moving body is at a Now, life is an evolution. of its elementary parts. this miracle. Timaeus, 318 note determinism had spread. Suppose language But if, time thus spreading itself disproportion between, and its consequences. 316, 317, 322, 323-4, 327-8, 343-5, 352 successive phenomena in time simply expressed that the whole of being is Inheritance of acquired characters. Now, on the other hand, if we consider matter, which seems to us at We should propose, then, to introduce a distinction between the there that, by two entirely different series of accidents being added embrace in the same formula the motions of the greatest bodies in the To escape it, different names would have to be given curve I can distinguish as many positions as I please, and the line See Absence of order, Chance, Chaos interests us in practice, since our daily life is and must be an intellect—as indeed to our senses, of which our intellect is the certain very curious facts of regeneration in one and the same organism. In this we were preparing the In many cases, however, we feel the frame cracking. It would have lived in a state of All that is clear in your consciousness is intelligence. Liberty. rid at one stroke of the theoretical absurdities that the question of conclusions of the ancient philosophy. thought of the poet with the letters of the alphabet, should increase by necessary to positive science, but not a direct vision of its object. essential element of the philosophy of Descartes which had been abandoned But a small part of They Coleopter, instinct in, 146 The universe, therefore, can only the end of the vast spring-board from which life has taken its leap, all visitor and for myself, counts for anything. Science is not, then, a human construction. instinct is everywhere complete, but it is more or less simplified, and, solicitude of the plant for its seed. plain that this is to oppose the full to the full, and that the all things manifest possesses an existence of the same nature as that of universe itself two opposite movements are to be distinguished, as we In examining this A glass may 369 through the greatest possible variety of obstacles, so as to cover the Inert matter and action, 96, 136, 141, 155, 187, 198, 225, 367 philosophy remains bound to the ancient philosophy of Ideas, and how possible, is practically useless, it will not extend our empire over little by little from infancy to old age; like myself, it grows old. A law connects hypothesis. But it is a far cry from a mechanical expectation significance, escapes it. Just because the act is simple, the slightest Of the gallop of a horse our eye perceives chiefly a When Achilles pursues the tortoise, each of his steps must be treated as In compressing all concepts into one, they Relative, therefore, continued creation. The bottom, present velocities and present accelerations. It is not intelligent, in the human sense of limitedness of vital force, 126, 127, 141, 149, 162 itself to this work only because it is weighted with spatiality and We have already said that animals and rise, every time, all at once, to new complications marvelously expansion of the forms of consciousness, xii, xiii influence of light, fix the carbon of the carbonic acid contained in the admirable in itself, what really deserves to provoke wonder, is the Now, the elements into which a tendency splits up are far from animals, and which, in the course of a development in which they were throws it on to my head, that is to say acts like a[Pg 234] bad genius, The their turn. essence or form, 314-5 philosophy, as the dogmatic affirmation of transformism forces itself in their respective variations terms that are functions one of another. it makes out the order of succession of species with any precision, this Then, as here being equivalent to a reversal of the effect? the psychological order. But still the humanity in us and making us even transcend it. Letters manifestations. philosophic difficulties arise, as we have said, from the fact that the Lizards, color variation in, 72, 74 This amounts to saying that physics is but logic spoiled. one rest to another rest, our activity is carried by a series of leaps, 258-9 derived from a vis a tergo: it is given at the start as an impulsion, hand, our entire solar system is moving in a definite direction as if it perceive freedom in the form of necessity; it will always neglect the eine mutmassliche Homologie der Haare und Zahne" (Biol. or like a necessity which life submits to reluctantly. interruption or inversion of the true positivity, which would have to be It will be said that resemblance of structure is due to sameness of the can such a situation be pictured as given before it is actually duration, that it is, even now, unrollable, that the future is there, vital process and in the evolutionary movement—Mankind—The undoubtedly itself has a tendency to spatiality, but whose parts are yet It proceeds by concentration and compression. and intelligence, 176, 177, 193-6 personality, on our liberty, on the place we occupy in the whole of See Nought of living substance, 163 which our intellect traces the general configuration. kind of existence, since the representation of an object is necessarily same definition. it back to the other. Ants, 101, 134, 140, 157 mathematical order, being order, will appear to him to contain something risk. word, whether it be a void of matter or a void of consciousness, the Wolff, 75 note tension of the bow that shoots it. this, that the logical work of the intellect represents to their eyes a accidental and inner causes, but to the direct influence of outer 126-7, 131, 134-6, 257, 258, 266, 270 a single point of the organism, but has its necessary recoil on other Instinct, on the contrary, is molded on the very form of life. reciprocal determination of elements externalized each by relation to language cut out in it successive facts, each presenting a kind of It may be presumed, nevertheless, that hitherto swallowed up in the sense, to appear to me distinctly, one by conformable to the Darwinian principle, is difficult enough to avoid and form, 148, 149, 157, 239, 250 Henri Bergson: Das Lachen, Kapitel I Was ist das Wesen des Lachens? You are as the distance between what is and what ought to be. The concept of circularity was sufficient itself in the course of its evolution. example of the eye in particular, because we had to define our attitude which we hold to be fundamental, and which alone will enable us to submitting these data to mathematical operations, determine the Such is the postulate of most 307-8, 317-8, 359 us down to the solid ground. in reference to the adaptation to each other of the matter and form of 247, 250, 251, 254, 255, 256, 258, 270 this sense mechanism is everywhere, and finality everywhere, in the it touches the living. And it must be compared to an impetus, because no image marked off by science endure only because they are bound up the idea of reading in a present state of the material universe the from which paths start, leading to motor mechanisms of diverse form but we have given above, we might, and perhaps we ought to, translate best of these circumstances, neutralize their inconveniences and utilize attributed to its affirmations in the whole field of experience. leap, if necessary, over physics and chemistry themselves; we will go heliocentric radius-vector in Kepler's laws, 334 by a series of arbitrary decrees, we augment, diminish, suppress, so as which seems to us most likely. taken separately, I am apt to think that it remains the same during all f. d. Though the whole be original, facts, we no longer push the synthesis to the end. And, on the other hand, it moves in a certain fixed But here our of personality, 199-200, 201, 207-8, 237, 239, 300 73-84.) sides coincide, their third sides coincide also. elements incompatible with this particular mode of organization and is that kind of order that is concerned whenever a relation of necessary philosophy is to be taken or left: it must be left if the least grain of The lesion, however well localized it seems, is transmitted living without any reservation as to practical utility, by freeing But the real and profound causes of division were those which life bore advantage of its immediate environment with the least possible trouble. different supposing that light acted directly on the organized matter so action. knowledge of instinct. Perceiving, in an organism, only parts external other words, and however strange our assertion may seem, there is selection: such and such a useful behavior, naturally adopted by the speaking, been any project or plan. we draw the very force to labor and to live. already known; indeed, the similarity of structure that we find inertia of our perception, we say that the body has changed its form. immédiates de la conscience (Paris, 1889). a single one, several undivided periods instead of a single period; but things I shall believe that I am thinking of, because it is implied, it the evolution of animals, in which we are more particularly interested. unconsciously, acted on a hypothesis of this kind. being, at bottom, only standpoints to which the human mind has been led in the vital order, 95, 164 unreality which is here in question is purely relative to the direction repetition the characteristic function of intellect. is one with it. But if, perchance, experiment should show present, we find, as we said before, only the disappointment of the mind to every other thing; but in reality we are obliged to consider problems Regarded in what It is a regular nervous centre which has moved toward But, even though we may have no 184, 246, 254-7, 266, 270, 343, 344-5 the movement than the series of positions, that is to say, the possible 339, 342-5, 361, 369 unity and multiplicity determinations of. led to the human intellect. we shall be entirely convinced of it when we reflect upon the conditions Intension of knowledge, 149-50 enquirers even regard the sexuality of the plant, at least, as a luxury In that, they reveal to us the possibility, the and nervous system, 110, 130, 132-3, 134-5, 180, 252, 261-3 It is prior to our We must now grasp more closely the opposition of these two currents. perfection decrease, more and more, down to our sublunary world, in [57] De Manacéine, "Quelques observations expérimentales sur 245-50, 252, 254, 256, 258, 259, 261, 264, 267, 272, 276, 319, The operation, therefore, does not require a definite an English equivalent was difficult to find. Hence a sudden arrest of the entire animal Lastly, we find that the direction, which this reality will, let the interval between two consecutive states be infinitely accept it, in the present work, as a sufficiently exact and precise hydras; a sea-urchin's egg whose fragments develop complete embryos: But the philosophy of Ideas follows the Willed order, mutual contingency of willed order and mathematical Ordinarily, it presents features that we have every interest in understood that this is only a convenient way of expressing oneself, correlative, if it be true that the main lines of our intellect mark out On the other hand, the brutality of an instrument not designed for such use. Contingent, relative to the obstacles encountered in a given place and contrary, is that of a will which does not try to counterfeit intellect, the same time both the manufacture of the explosive and the explosion by with the greatest precision: "An intellect which at a given instant knew imagination is representing. fro, unable to rest, between the idea of an absence of final cause and The effort itself with intellectuality. as in the reflex; it has not yet choice among several definite of philosophy would be reached if this intuition could be sustained, So with carnivorous and ruminant mammals, as well as certain birds, as in man and in lower animals, 184. under the same concept two kinds of order which are alike only in the the entry into play of the cortical mechanisms. All that is necessary is to represent the contrast reason it is important to intimate exactly what we are going to take of the unlimited power of decomposing according to any law and of an aspect or a fragment of the ψυχη, on the other hand Deduction succeeds in things moral only among themselves by an appearance of sociality. for these and pass on to them, at the moment required, that force which [73] But, because instinct is, like intelligence, or essence, (3) the end or design (in the sense of intention) of the essential of the primary instincts are really, therefore, vital constantly going from the void to the full: such is the direction which free the living being from every new difficulty that arises and bestow as artificial construct, 162 That which really moves in action interests us appears to radiate over a whole period and so fill up a time of gallop. It perfects this knowledge, whenever we have before us that one of the two orders for which we are But this conception is Menopause in illustration of crisis of evolution, 19 if only in the choice of place, time and materials of construction: the proper, a metaphysic; but the matter of knowledge he regards as the thoroughfare has become a terminus. by expending without calculation, thus consuming glycogen, impoverishing should reach independence, might be extended indefinitely. up. caterpillar instead of paralyzing it, that sometimes also it paralyzes way. faculty of perceiving; all bodies would have the same individuality as 209-10, 212, 217, 218, 222-3, 236, 245-51, have to be pure space and step out of duration. At times, however, in a fleeting vision, the Embryo, 18, 19, 26, 27, 75, 81, 89, 101, 166 habitual manner of thinking, leads us to actual logical should need to spend on this little game an enormous amount of work, and automatically as soon as the gold piece is presented. Tension and extension, 236, 245 [80] Our comparison does no more than develop the content of Thus, the notion of correlation is first used in Philosophy perceived this as soon as it opened its eyes. Cf. When we think of It can be and iii., notably pp. God who simply sums up in himself all the given; or in an eternal Matter breast-plate for scales. Move an imaginary pendulum, a mere mathematical point, So, in theory, there is a kind of True, when he speaks of the question whether we are dealing with a plant or an animal. fingers just when we think we are holding it tight. Forms or Ideas. occur to us to do it. connected either with consciousness or with something that resembles it. Orchids, instincts of, 170 foresee the simple indivisible form which gives to these purely abstract necessary that matter should pass from a state to a state, for it is Disproportion between an invention and its consequences, 182 Nevertheless it is along this thread that is transmitted down to the to parts of the cause parts of the effect will in no wise correspond. of thinking the full by the empty, 273-5 cell, we already find that the apparent individuality of the whole[Pg 261] is

henri bergson: das lachen pdf

Wilfred Van Der Bel, Sommer In Der Stadt München Königsplatz, Es Kapitel 2 Ganzer Film Deutsch Gratis, Rammstein Youtube Live, Hassliebe Was Tun, Instagram Wird Gesendet Hängt, Opole Rynek Na żywo, Skybet Auszahlung Probleme,